Form PLURAL NOUNS correctly by following these 7 rules

A noun in Plural form refers to two or more persons, places, things, animals, events or feelings.

Take note of the following rules when forming plural nouns:

Most plural nouns end in S. For example:







Some plural nouns are formed using some rules. Here are the most common rules and examples for each:

Rule 1

For nouns ending in S, X, SH and CH, just add ES at the end of the word. (–es)

glass- glasses

brush- brushes

match- matches

box- boxes

beach- beaches

dress- dresses

witch- witches

dish- dishes

Rule 2

For nouns ending in Y, change Y to I and add ES. (-ies) This rule applies when the letter before Y is a consonant.

baby- babies

dictionary- dictionaries

puppy- puppies

story- stories

lady- ladies

diary- diaries

family- families

library- libraries

Rule 3

For nouns ending in Y, add S. (-s)

This rule applies when the letter before Y is a vowel.

toy- toys

bay- bays

tray- trays

turkey- turkeys

valley- valleys

jersey- jerseys

cowboy- cowboys

day- days

Rule 4

For nouns ending in F and FE, change F to V and add ES.(-ves)

leaf- leaves

wolf- wolves

thief- thieves

elf- elves

But some nouns ending in F and FE only add S. (-s)

chef- chefs

chief- chiefs


sheriff- sheriffs

handkerchief- handkerchiefs

cliff- cliffs

giraffe- giraffes

Rule 5

For nouns ending in O, add S to the plural form. (-s)

kangaroo- kangaroos

zoo- zoos

video- videos

But some nouns ending in O, add ES. (-es)

tomato- tomatoes

potato- potatoes

For some nouns add either S or ES for their plural forms. (-s) or (-es)

mango- mangoes

zero- zeroes

mosquito- mosquitoes

Rule 6

Some plural nouns don’t follow any specific rule. They are called irregular nouns

foot- feet

tooth- teeth

ox- oxen

fungus- fungi

sheep- sheep

mouse- mice

goose- geese

child- children

man- men

woman- women

Rule 7

Some nouns always end S and are thus considered plural.





Qualifiers should be added to make these nouns singular.

jeans- a pair of jeans

scissors- a pair of scissors

sandals- a pair of sandals


These jeans do not fit me. (NOT: This jeans does not fit me; jeans is always plural)

This pair of jeans does not fit me. (NOT: These pair of jeans do not fit me; pair of jeans is considered singular because of the quantifier pair)

Collective Nouns

Collective Nouns are words for groups of people, animals, or things.







Generally, a singular verb form should be used with collective nouns.


The choir sings classical songs. (NOT: The choir sing classical songs.)

Our group wants to join the dance contest. (NOT: Our group want to join the dance competition.)

The audience loudly laughs at his jokes. (NOT: The audience loudly laugh at his jokes.)

Other examples of collective nouns in their singular and plural forms:

A collection of books- collections of books

A deck of cards- decks of cards

A bunch of bananas- bunches of bananas

A fleet of ships- fleets of ships

A herd of sheep- herds of ships

A set of pens- sets of pens

A swarm of bees- swarms of bees

A school of fish- schools of fish

A pack of wolves- packs of wolves

Some commonly used collective terms are the following:


Board – a group of people, usually professionals

Bunch – usually a group of smallish objects such as grapes, flowers, keys, or bananas


Choir – a group of singers

Crew – a group of workers;

Crowd – usually used to describe a group of people


Flock– a group of birds


Gang – used to describe a group of criminals; also used to describe a group of workers

Group – a general term used to describe people, places, things, and animals


Heap –a collection of items; with the same meaning as “pile”

Herd– A group of herbivore animals


Mob – Normally used to describe an angry or unruly group of people; also used to describe a group of kangaroos


Orchestra – an organized group of people playing instruments


Pack– a group of canine animals such as wolves or dogs

Panel – a group of experts

Pile – a collection of items, which are usually untidy


Series – refer to movies, books, or events that follow one after another

Set – a tidy group of matched objects such as cups and plates

Shoal– a group of fish

Staff – a group of people who belong to the same workplace

Swarm– a group of insects, usually bees


Troupe – a group of dancers, actors or acrobats

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